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TMS, Neurology and Tinnitus

Basic findings

Tinnitus is considered a phantom sound and the result of cortical reorganisation (De Ridder et al 2005), it is frequently associated with deafness and may be the result of a pathological plasticity process. Neuroimaging studies demonstrate increased activity within the central auditory system (Langguth et al. 2006). TMS is a noninvasive method to modulate cortical reorganisation and has been shown to be able to influence tinnitus perception (De Ridder et al. 2005).

Ongoing research

Monitoring The Disease

It is possible that tinnitus is associated with an irregular activation of the temporoparietal cortex. Plewnia et al. theorised that if this activity is a functionally relevant component of the tinnitus-related network, a virtual temporary lesion of this area should result in transient reduction of tinnitus. Stimulation of left temporoparietal cortex significantly reduced tinnitus, and the authors stated that secondary auditory areas can be critical for tinnitus perception, perhaps as a consequence of maladaptive cortical reorganisation (Plewnia et al. 2003).

Modulating The Disease

Many studies have demonstrated that tinnitus reduction can be obtained using TMS (Meeus et al 2009, Vanneste et al 2011). Precisely which parts of the brain and the auditory circuits are involved and optimal TMS parameters have not yet been fully explored.



  • De Ridder et al., Otology & Neurotology, 2005.
  • Langguth et al., Acta Oto-laryngologica, 2006.
  • Meeus et al., B-ENT, 2009.
  • Plewnia et al., Ann Neurol, 2003.
  • Vanneste et al., J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 2011.


  • Magstim 200²
    A single pulse, monophasic stimulator used for cortical and peripheral stimulation.
  • Magstim BiStim² & Upgrade
    The BiStim² is an extension of the 200². Two of the single pulse systems are combined through a connecting module, so that paired pulses can be delivered through one coil.
  • Magstim Rapid², Super Rapid², & the Super Rapid² Plus¹
    The Magstim Rapid² is a single pulse and repetitive stimulator with high frequency capabilities. It is ideal for therapeutic applications as well as a wide variety of research fields.
  • Articulated Coil Stand
    The Magstim Articulated Coil Stand arm is an elegant multi-movement mechanism capable of holding a stimulating coil over an exceptionally wide range of movement.
  • Interface Module
    The Magstim Stimulator Interface Module provides additional interface functionality for all of the 2nd generation Magstim Stimulators (200², BiStim² and Rapid²).
  • Neuronavigation
    Magstim is working to develop applications that will further advance the field of Neuronavigation, and supports ANT's Visor System.
  • Air Film Coil
    The Magstim Air Film Coil is the first of a new generation of stimulating coils which allow users to stimulate for extended periods of time. This improvement has been achieved as a result of an advanced, registered method of coil design and manufacture
  • Double 70mm Cooled Coil System
    The cooled coil is available in the double 70mm configuration and can be run for extended periods of time without overheating thus removing the need to replace coils during protocols of stimulation.
  • Double Cone Coil
    The Double Cone Coil elicits responses from relaxed muscles of the lower pelvic floor and lower limbs.
  • Double Small 25mm Coil
    The Double Small 25mm Coil has been designed for enhanced positional accuracy in peripheral stimulation.
  • HDCkit
    A cost-effective modular system for Direct Current (DC) stimulation, designed specifically for both research and clinical use.



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